Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA)

Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA) is a type of precision approach. It is designed to help aircraft conduct a safe, precise descent in a non-precision environment. This approach has two independent pathways. They are offset by distance and time. This method gives more flexibility when planning approaches. It lets for a smooth transition from en-route to descent.

In this section, we will cover an overview of SOIA and its components:

Definition of Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) created the Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA) to keep aviation safe, efficient and environmentally friendly. This procedure uses two approach paths for two aircraft arriving at the same time.

Navigational aids such as Intermediate Fix (IF), Center-Line Arrangement (CLA) and Numerical Precision Approach Radar (PAR) provide lateral guidance for each plane’s final approach. Air traffic control monitors the two aircraft via Standard Instrument Departure Procedures and Traffic Control radar if the planes get too close or deviate from set parameters.

SOIA also helps pilots locate navigation assistances during poor visibility conditions, like bad weather or darkness. It enables Instrument Flight Rules-equipped airports with insufficient navigational aids to use multiple runway approaches on one bearing. This reduces fuel consumption and lets more flights complete safely during low visibility times.

Benefits of Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach

A Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA) is a special type of approach to navigate an aircraft. It is used for two aircraft flying in formation, saving time and fuel, as well as using airspace efficiently.

The benefits of using SOIA include:

  • Increased safety and efficiency of air traffic control operations.
  • Increased protection against restricted airspace incidents and reduces noise levels.
  • Communication between pilots is improved as they avoid contact with other nearby flights.
  • Reduces traffic at major airports by helping manage congestion.
  • Provides pilots with an additional method for safely navigating airspace during difficult operational periods. This allows them to focus on their individual tasks without compromising safety.

Prerequisites

A Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach has specific needs:

  • A working GPS is essential.
  • The pilot must be qualified.
  • You need the relevant charts and documents.

We’ll look closer at what is needed to be successful.

Aircraft Requirements

To do a Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach, certain aircraft must meet requirements Flyingtogether Ual Employee Sign on. This approach needs two pilots and an airplane with autopilot/flight director systems and a coupled Localizer/Back Course (LOC BC) system. Preferably, it needs advanced navigation systems like GPS, FMS, and GNSS receivers. Pilots must be trained in the offset approach and understand how to program the navigation equipment. Plus, both PIC and SIC must show an advanced level of Pilot Navigation Proficiency before trying a Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach.

Pilot Requirements

Pilots need a valid instrument rating (or a valid instrument proficiency check) and one hour of simulated or actual instrument flying in the last six months to make a successful offset approach. They should know their aircraft type and have good knowledge of altitude control, navigation and other airmanship skills. Plus, they must meet the requirements to fly VFR as decided by their FAA status or country’s aviation authority.

It is also recommended that pilots do a few approaches in conditions similar to VFR, and gain experience in handling any challenges that come up during offset approaches for safe completion:

  • Know their aircraft type
  • Have good knowledge of altitude control, navigation and other airmanship skills
  • Meet the requirements to fly VFR as decided by their FAA status or country’s aviation authority
  • Do a few approaches in conditions similar to VFR
  • Gain experience in handling any challenges that come up during offset approaches for safe completion

Weather Requirements

Before choosing a simultaneous offset approach, pilots and controllers must think about several weather elements. For day operations, 3 statute miles visibility and a ceiling of 1,500 ft AGL is needed. At night, 5 statute miles visibility and a ceiling of 2,500 ft AGL is required.

For circling approaches, 800 ft of ceilings and 2 statute miles visibility is needed. The pilot should look for wind shear advisories and wind gusts. They should also be aware of turbulence restrictions. Any risks should be assessed before beginning the operation.

Procedures

A simultaneous offset instrument approach is a type of instrument approach procedure used by pilots. It combines two separate approaches – an ILS and a VOR one. These two approaches are flown simultaneously, but the courses are offset. Here, we will discuss the steps needed to set up and execute a successful simultaneous offset instrument approach:

  1. Set up the navigation radio to the ILS frequency.
  2. Set the OBS to the inbound course.
  3. Set the secondary navigation radio to the VOR frequency.
  4. Set the OBS to the offset course.
  5. Fly the ILS and VOR approaches simultaneously.
  6. Monitor the altitude, heading, and speed.
  7. Once the aircraft is on the glideslope, reduce the speed and begin the descent.
  8. When the aircraft is on the glideslope, cross-check the VOR and ILS needles.
  9. Continue the approach until the aircraft is on the runway.

Establishing the Offset

Simultaneous offset instrument approach procedures are used to give pilots extra safety when using a non-precision approach. This requires the aircraft to be on the inbound course and at or above the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA).

A heading of 30° – 45° must then be flown right or left of inbound course, at a distance stated in the approach chart. This heading should be followed until instructed otherwise. At least one reference point must be in this heading when entering or crossing any specified points (e.g., IAF, FAF, MAP). To do a Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach, certain aircraft must meet requirements Flyingtogether Ual Employee Sign on. Air traffic control may also require pilots to adjust their heading while maintaining position relative to one reference point, before descending to MDA/DH.

Establishing these offsets is important to ensure a predictable path from top-of-descent point(s) over terrain that may be hazardous at lower altitudes. It will also help pilots navigate unfamiliar airspace and execute instrument approaches in reduced visibility.

Establishing the Primary Approach

The simultaneous offset instrument approach is used when straight-in is not possible or desirable. It needs two navigational systems for both vertical and lateral guidance.

Before this procedure, the pilot must establish the primary approach. Tune and capture the info from the primary navigation aid. Identify and check the terminal area.

  • Tune and verify the secondary navigation system.
  • Get DME fixes if available.
  • Radar monitoring to keep obstacle clearance.
  • Make corrections to be in a stabilized condition and at the right altitude.

Executing the Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach

Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach needs exact timing and confident execution of several aircraft directors. This maneuver involves heli pilots manoeuvring an aircraft between two different flight paths, which are offset. When done right, this process is a good way to get one plane safely through a crowded airspace.

It begins with the Flight Leader saying their takeoff place. Then, all helicopters in the group make the approach, lining up vertically along the published approach trajectory and heading. The Flight Leader assigns each heli to two pre-determined offset flight paths, thinking of winds and individual performance criteria before reaching the landing zone.

Once in vertical alignment, each aircraft slides to the side to let simultaneous movement on the two offset paths chosen by the Flight Leader. Before movement, preset groundspeed targets must be set by the Flight Leader using wind info from ATC or somewhere else. All taking off together must use same speed targets for the entire Flyingtogether.ual.com Web Travel Jsp since helicopters must come down together at their Reference Points (RP).

When helicopters reach their respective RP, they do standard overhead approaches to turnaround and final lanes for landings, in line with local regulations or airfield operating procedures. Pilots should always communicate with ATC if changes are required or no updates have been received, to keep the safety of all approaching traffic in the simultaneous offset instrument approaches.

Safety Considerations

Simultaneous offset instrument approach permits two different aircraft to fly instrument approaches at the same time, lowering the chance of a collision. But when executing this maneuver, there are some safety considerations that must be taken into account.

These include:

  • Keeping the aircraft in visual contact,
  • Doing the approach in an area with no conflicting traffic,
  • Avoiding other hazards or obstacles.

In this section, we will discuss these safety considerations more thoroughly.

Airspace Considerations

Flying a simultaneous offset instrument approach requires attention to the airspace. Pilots should be aware of military training routes and check NOTAMS. Before approaching, the flight management computer must be set with altitude constraints. This ensures safe clearance of restricted areas and terrain.

Pilots must also be mindful of controlling agencies, as well as ATC services for aircraft proximity. If a radar service is part of the briefing, then pilots must follow all instructions from ATC, plus restrictions for safety and airspace. All taking off together must use same speed targets for the entire Flyingtogether.ual.com Web Travel Jsp since helicopters must come down together at their Reference Points (RP).

Lastly, pilots must stick to published heights on sectors. Deviating can lead to aircraft separation issues or danger.

Traffic Considerations

Before initiating a simultaneous offset instrument approach, there are a few traffic considerations to keep in mind:

  • Clearance between the aircraft flying the offsets must be enough.
  • The central approach must remain clear at all times during the execution.
  • Controllers monitor each offset and each turning procedure to prevent midair collisions.
  • Regulations and air traffic control instructions must be strictly followed for length and heading margins. Flying Together Intranet Ual shows how close an aircraft can be to obstacles while still being safe.
  • Pilots must adhere to the speed restrictions on the central approach route.

These safety guidelines for simultaneous offsets ensure a safe experience for everyone involved.

Terrain Considerations

For a simultaneous offset instrument approach, terrain is important. It impacts the angle of interception and the approach course. High terrain can block the line of sight and mess up the navigation signals. To be safe, pick an instrument that gives enough clearance from any obstructions like mountains or tall buildings.

Fly Over Territory (FOT) minimums must be used. This is an angle between two positions and changes with wind direction, the direction of flight, etc. Flying Together Intranet Ual shows how close an aircraft can be to obstacles while still being safe. FOT minima is often lower than straight-in minima, meaning it’s more accurate at avoiding any obstacles missed when doing straight-in navigation.

Conclusion

The Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach is a special type of approach. Two aircraft use their on-board navigation systems to converge on one point in space. They fly parallel paths based on the “offset” concept. This uses an angular constant from a reference point. This helps in busy environments and is crucial for air traffic controllers and pilots.

The offset provides reference points and guidance for both aircraft. This reduces cognitive load and increases controller awareness. It also enables better communication. This approach reduces delays, provides greater situational awareness and enhances safety.

  • The SOP allows two aircraft to safely approach a single point. They follow consistent guidance to maintain separation.
  • Delays are reduced and better communication is enabled between controllers and pilots. This enhances safety and situational awareness.